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Poland

Poland Timeline. Through history.

If we don’t understand the past, how can we understand our present and future? To truly absorb, appreciate, and reflect on the country we are visiting, we need to look at pivotal moments in history. Begin your journey through the ages now.

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Jewish timeline General timeline
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1038 Krakow is the capital of Poland
1237 Permanent Jewish settlement in Warsaw
1333-1370 King Kasmir the Great: free residence and transit, helpful to Jews
1335 Kazimierz established in Krakow
1510-1574 Maharshal Rabbi Shlomo Ben Yechiel Luria, Lublin
1527-1572 R. Moses Isserles commentary on Shulchan Aruch, Krakow
1530s-1560s Golden Age (Krakow)
1569 Warsaw is the capital of Poland
1772, 1773, 1795 Poland divided between Russia, Prussia & Austria
Partitions of Poland – most Jews under Russia
1572-1802 “De Non Tolerandis Judaeis”. Jews are not allowed to live in inner Warsaw
1580-1648 Golden Age
1700-1760 Baal Shem Tov Hasidut
1745-1815 The Seer of Lublin (Hasidut)
1780 Expulsion (Lublin)
1802 Warsaw Jews were officially able to settle in the city of Warsaw
1804 11,630 Jews in the city of Warsaw, 17% of population
1875-1878 Tlomackie Street Synagogue (Warsaw) symbol of rising Jewish influence
1917 Beis Yakov school for Orthodox girls. Krakow
1918 United Poland. Wilson’s 14 Points – # 13: United, Free, Independent Poland
1920 Chachamei Lublin Yeshiva
1921 Almost 3 million Jews, 10.5% of population
1921-1937 400,000 Jews emigrated. 30,000 made Aliyah
1926 Coup d’état – Joseph Pilsudski in power until his death in 1935
1931 Census: Polish-Jews mother tongue: 79% Yiddish, 12% Polish, 8% Hebrew
1939 381,000 Jews in Warsaw, comprising approximately 30% of the city’s population
August 1939 Ribbentrop-Moltov Pact
1 September 1939 German invasion of Poland – 3.3 million Jews in Poland, approximately 10% of total population
1939-1945 World War II – 6 Million Poles Died (1/2 Jews)
1941 Podgorze Ghetto established in Krakow
1942 Plazow Concentration Camp in Krakow
April-May 1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Aug.-Sep. 1944 Polish Uprising
1944-1946 Peak of anti-Semitism, Krakow
1945 Potsdam Conference – New borders for Poland. Borders moved 150 Miles to the west
July 1946 Kielce Pogrom. 46 Jews killed
1947 20,000 Jews in Krakow
1947-1989 Communist Rule
1948 Ghetto Heroes Monument by Nathan Rapoport
1950 4,000 Jews in Krakow
1980-1981 Solidarity – Lech Walesa
1989 Free Elections. Large number of Poles returned home
2000 Jewish Studies program in the Faculty of History at Jagiellonian University, Krakow
2012 Museum in Oskar Schindler’s Factory, Krakow
2013 3000-30,000 Jews in Poland
2013 Opening of the POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews, Warsaw